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Other limitations include the lack of generalizability beyond the setting studied and potential for social desirability bias, as well as the above-noted possibilities of adherence misclassification bias and inaccuracy of risk assessments. In addition, PrEP is being offered through other studies and programs near the study sites that may have influenced PrEP use, although we were not aware of any co-enrollments. The study also had many strengths, including high retention, robust and detailed adherence measurement, weekly assessment of HIV risk behavior and perception, and 2 years of follow-up.
In conclusion, PrEP adherence declined rapidly and remained low for most young women in this study, although a small proportion took PrEP at levels likely to provide protection from HIV acquisition. While the associations between HIV risk and PrEP adherence were complex, the straight-forward metric of having multiple current sexual partners may offer a promising counseling approach.
Although the lower than anticipated HIV incidence could suggest targeted prevention-effective adherence, it may also indicate that young women gained other unmeasured benefits from participation in a PrEP program, such as the ability to have lower risk sexual partners.
Attention to holistic HIV prevention, including PrEP and involvement of sexual partners, will be critical for this population going forward. Long-acting formulations 47 may also be useful for those who desire PrEP but struggle with adherence to a daily pill. Importantly, the association of higher adherence with short travel time and other site-level factors eg, local social norms and behaviors, staff interactions with clients holds promise for better HIV prevention with less burdensome, user-friendly approaches to PrEP, such as may be achieved with community-based PrEP delivery.
Gilead provided emtricitabine-tenofovir for use as PrEP. Principal Investigators: Jessica E. Haberer, Jared M. Baeten, Elizabeth Bukusi, Nelly Mugo. Thomas, Nicholas Musinguzi, Susie Valenzuela. Neither organization influenced the study conduct, analysis, or presentation of the results. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr.
Published online Dec Jessica E. Thomas , MS, d Peter L. Baeten , MD, PhD k, l. Lindsey E. Katherine K. Peter L. Jared M. Find articles by Jared M. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received May 28; Accepted Oct Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Abstract Objective: To present detailed analyses of long-term pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP use and associated behaviors and perceptions among young Kenyan women.
Design: Prospective, observational cohort. Conclusions: PrEP adherence was modest and declined over time. Study Procedures We followed participants prospectively for a 2-year period ending on March 27, Table 1.
Participant Characteristics at Baseline. Open in a separate window. PrEP Adherence We analyzed total person-years of follow-up. TABLE 2. Bold indicates concordance between the two adherence measures. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. In: Cohen B, Trussell J, editors. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. N Engl J Med. Tenofovir-based preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women. How Long Will They Take it? Patients with missing information on preoperative CBC and those with simultaneous malignancies other than GC were also excluded.
Tumor staging was performed according to the 8th edition of the Tumor, Node, Metastasis staging classification by the Union for International Cancer Control [ 11 ]. In the present study, grade 2 or higher postoperative complications according to the Clavien-Dindo Classification [ 12 , 13 ] occurred in 60 patients All patients provided written informed consent before surgery.
The following clinicopathological data were reviewed from the medical record database of our institution: age, sex, body mass index BMI , physical status PS , comorbidities hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart disease, and chronic renal failure , tumor location, preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen CEA , cancer antigen CA , albumin, C-reactive protein CRP , preoperative CBC Neut, Lymp, Mono, and Plt , pathological T stage pT , pathological N stage pN , lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, and tumor differentiation.
After curative gastrectomy for GC, patients with pStage I generally received postoperative examinations alone without any adjuvant treatments.
Most patients were postoperatively followed up for 5 years or until their death. GC recurrence was confirmed by imaging, such as CT and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. If possible, recurrence was histologically confirmed via surgical biopsy, needle biopsy, or appropriate fluid cytology.
Peritoneal recurrence was diagnosed by imaging alone, and diagnostic laparotomy was rarely performed. Differences between the two groups for categorical and continuous variables were analyzed by the chi-squared test and Mann-Whitney U test, respectively. The optimal cutoff value for each immune-nutritional parameter Neut, Lymp, Mono, Plt, or SII was selected according to the receiver operating characteristic ROC curve for overall survival OS with the maximal Youden index based on the sum of sensitivity and specificity [ 17 , 18 ].
The cutoff values for serum albumin and CRP were set at 3. OS and recurrence-free survival RFS were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the differences between the two groups were assessed with the log-rank test. In one model model 1 , Neut, Lymp, or Plt was separately incorporated as explanatory variables.
The median range values were —15, for Neut, — for Lymp, 50— for Mono, As shown in Fig. Survival curves of patients stratified by preoperative SII. B RFS. GC recurrence was detected in 51 out of patients. Cumulative recurrence rates stratified by preoperative SII were examined according to the type of GC recurrence peritoneal, hematogenous, and lymph node recurrence Fig. Cumulative recurrence rate for each recurrence pattern stratified by preoperative SII. A Peritoneal recurrence. B Lymph node recurrence.
C Hematogenous recurrence. In the present study, we examined the clinical significance of preoperative SII to predict postoperative survival outcomes in GC. Of special note was that high SII correlated with peritoneal recurrence. These results suggested that preoperative SII may contribute to perioperative precise care and adjuvant treatments for patients with GC undergoing curative gastrectomy.
A relationship was previously suggested between obesity and chronic inflammation [ 21 ]; therefore, patients with high BMI may have a stronger inflammatory response. In cancer patients, inflammation is induced by inflammatory cytokines as cancer progresses, and, thus, patients with a high inflammatory response may lose weight [ 22 ]. In the present study, high SII correlated with low albumin levels, suggesting that cachexia had an influence on the results obtained. Hirahara et al. In addition, several indexes calculated by combining these factors, such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, have been used to predict survival outcomes of GC [ 30 — 32 ].
Accordingly, high SII, resulting from neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis, may also be a useful prognostic indicator.
The negative impact of postoperative complications on survival outcomes has recently been clarified [ 33 , 34 ]. Accordingly, worse OS may be attributed to a higher incidence of postoperative complications. However, in the present study, the incidence of postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade II or higher in the high SII group was Correlations between preoperative inflammatory indices and the occurrence of postoperative complications remain controversial [ 35 , 36 ], and, thus, further studies are needed to confirm these relationships.
Previous studies demonstrated the negative impact of high preoperative SII on the survival outcomes of GC [ 23 , 37 , 38 ]; however, the cutoff values of SII differed between these studies. Wang et al. In the present study, although an ROC curve analysis was also used, the optimal cutoff value of SII for predicting OS was , which was markedly lower than Although Wang et al.
Similar to the present results, Shi et al. Therefore, further studies are needed to validate the optimal cutoff value of SII. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the impact of high SII on the specific recurrence pattern of GC.
A previous study showed that neutrophils promoted the migration and invasion of GC cells by activating the ERK pathway and inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition [ 27 ]. Other studies indicated that lymphopenia and thrombocytosis were predictive factors for peritoneal dissemination [ 39 , 40 ].
In addition, Nakamura et al. Since high SII results from neutrophilia, lymphopenia, and thrombocytosis, it may also be a useful predictor of peritoneal recurrence. However, the present results suggest that patients with high preoperative SII may also be considered for adjuvant chemotherapy. New Settlement Schemes in Sri Lanka. Ninh waste water and sanitation , Brohier, R. An Intellectual History of Urban Planning 2. English, P. London: Blackwell. Cosgrove and G. Petts eds.
Taipei: Linking Publishing. McGee eds. The Extended Metropo- Nguyen, D. Leiden: Justus McGrath, B. Regional Center, Chulalongkorn University.
Lightfoot, D. Ngo, D. Management in Vietnam, Indigenous Scott, J. Dat is of-Dyke Area, Hanoi. McGrath, B. Brunfaut Condition Have Failed. New Haven: Yale berghe. Crysler, S. Kaida, Y. Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers.
Lin, W. Heynen eds. Handbook of Stevin, S. London: Sage. Ngo, L. Hosseini, S. Rotterdam: Jan Van Waesberghe. Mead, M. Hosseine, S. Unpublished Ph. A Pickett, M. Cadenasso, B. McGrath eds. New York: Stiros, S. Technical University of Denmark. Pham, A. Rubinstein ed. New York: M. Tvedt and Nguyen, K. Jakobsson eds.
Lister, N. Saunders ed. Tauris, — Hanoi: The Gioi Publishers, 7— Sciences, — The Colonial and Contempo- Kobe University. History, 7th rev. Takaya, Y. Ann Arbor: Michigan University — Shannon, K. A Precursor to Landscape Urbanism? Yearbook , www. Yamaya, R. Development 5, 44— Preliminary Recon- 19—20, www. Parry et al. Climate Change Impacts, Ad- land. Foran, and M. Issue : — Tokyo: Springer, 1— Contested Waterscapes in Phan, K. London: Earthscan, system in Vietnam Brief History ]. Cambridge: Cambridge N.
Science Nha Xuat ban Nong nghiep. Lansing, J. Detail Planning of Flood Control for Economics — University of Tsukuba. Berkeley and Los Angeles: Gosseye, J. Tvedt and E. A History of University of California Press. Amsterdam: Sun. Institute of Water Resources Planning. Le, B. Hanoi: The Gioi Verschure, H. Vi- Pouyanne, A.
New York: I. Le, D. Ecological Urbanism. An Introduction to Vietnam and Hue. Hanoi: Environment. Prapod, A. Chiang Sharp, L. Bangkok: White Lotus. Vernacular Landscape. New Haven: Osborne, M. Mu, F. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. Le Corbusier Toward an Architecture. Hoach co ban phat trine khu vuc song Hong Shi, T. Oriented Agriculture in the Philippines and Practice — Turnhout: Brepoels. Osborne, M. Case Studies from the Mekong and Unwin.
Main Report, November. Delta, Coll. Final Report, Hanoi. Data Quality Tables Appendix E. A:Table WQ. Nepal MICS provides valuable information and the latest evidence on the situation of children and women in Nepal before the country was hit by an earthquake of 7. The survey presents data from an equity perspective by indicating disparities by sex, region, area, education, household wealth, and other characteristics.
Nepal MICS is based on a sample of 12, households interviewed and provides a comprehensive picture of children and women in the 15 sub-regions of the country. Child Mortality The MICS provides various measures of childhood calculated from information collected through birth histories of women aged According to survey results, in the most recent five-year period prior to the survey, the under-5 mortality rate in Nepal is 38 deaths per 1, live births, the infant mortality rate is 33 deaths per 1, live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 23 deaths per 1, live births.
There are substantial disparities in terms of urbanrural location, mothers education and household wealth status as well as between regions. Infant and under-5 mortality rates in rural areas are both over 50 percent higher than in urban areas. Mortality rates decrease with an increase in the education level of the mother. Children in the poorest households are twice as likely to die before reaching one and five years of age compared to children living in the richest households.
Nutritional Status and Breastfeeding Some 60 percent of newborns were weighed at birth. For all births, 24 percent of infants were estimated to weigh less than 2, grams. There was some regional variation, ranging from 20 percent in the Eastern Terai to 33 percent in the Mid-Western Mountains. One in three 30 percent children under five in Nepal were moderately or severely underweight, with 9 percent classified as severely underweight.
More than one-third 37 percent were moderately or severely stunted, with 16 percent severely stunted, and 11 percent were moderately or severely wasted, with 3 percent severely wasted. Only 2 percent of children were moderately or severely overweight. Children in rural areas were more likely than those in urban areas to be underweight, stunted or wasted. Those children whose mother has secondary or higher education were the least likely to be underweight, stunted or wasted compared to children of mothers with no education.
Almost all 97 percent newborns in Nepal were breastfed at some point after birth. However, only 49 percent started breastfeeding at the recommended time i. Some 57 percent of infants under six months of age were exclusively breastfed and 75 percent received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment during the day prior to the survey. Boys were more likely than girls to be exclusively breastfed.
A cultural dimension partially explains this difference, as boys are usually introduced to semi-solid food at six months as compared to girls at five months. Mothers education level was negatively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Some 94 percent of children aged months and 87 percent of children aged months were still being breastfed. Approximately 79 percent of all children aged months were receiving age-appropriate breastfeeding. Overall, 74 percent of infants aged 68 months had received solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least once during the previous day.
Boys were more likely than girls to receive solid, semi-solid or soft foods. Overall, 32 percent received a minimum acceptable diet. Some 12 percent of children aged months in Nepal were fed using a bottle with a nipple. Urban children were much more likely than rural children to be bottle fed, and bottle feeding was positively correlated with mothers education level and household wealth status.
Use of iodized salt was lowest in the Far Western Hills 54 percent and highest in the Central Hills 92 percent. Child Health and Care of Illness Four in every five mothers who gave birth in the two years prior to the survey were adequately protected against neonatal tetanus 77 percent.
Regionally, the highest percentage was in the Eastern Terai 86 percent and the lowest was in the Far Western Hills 60 percent. The likelihood of protection against neonatal tetanus increased with a womans level of education and household wealth status. Only 67 percent of women with no education were protected compared to 90 percent with higher than secondary education. Further, only 61 percent of women living in the poorest households were protected compared to 88 percent of women living in the richest households.
Twelve percent of children under five had experienced diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey. Of children with diarrhoea, 47 percent were taken to a qualified health care provider for advice or treatment. Mothers education level was positively associated with seeking care: 43 percent of women with no education sought care from a health facility or health provider compared to 58 percent of women with higher education.
Some 18 percent were treated with oral rehydration salts ORS and zinc as recommended. Children aged months 11 percent were the least likely to receive ORS and zinc. Overall, 46 percent of children received oral rehydration therapy ORT and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea. Older children months , urban children and children whose mother had higher education were much more likely than their counterparts to receive ORT and continued feeding.
Seven percent of children under five showed symptoms of acute respiratory infection ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey, of whom 50 percent were taken to a qualified health provider. Although appropriate medical care was sought for only 25 percent of children with ARI symptoms, antibiotic treatment was given to 75 percent of these children.
Children in poorer households were less likely than others to be taken to a qualified provider for treatment of ARI, and to be given antibiotics. Women living in households in the poorest wealth quintile were least likely to recognize the danger signs of pneumonia.
Overall, three-quarters 75 percent of all households in Nepal used solid fuels for cooking, with the primary source of fuel being wood 65 percent.
Use of solid fuels was low in urban areas 24 percent , while only 1 percent of households in Kathmandu Valley used solid fuels for cooking. Differentials with respect to household wealth and the education level of the household head were also important. In households where the head had no education, 89 percent of household members used solid fuels for cooking. Almost all households in the poorest wealth quintile used solid fuels for cooking.
Twenty percent of under-5s had an episode of fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 46 percent were taken to a qualified provider for advice or treatment.
However, no advice or treatment was sought in 29 percent of cases. Younger children months were more likely than their counterparts to receive care from a qualified provider 55 percent. Mothers education level and household wealth status were both positively correlated with seeking care from a qualified provider. Less than 1 percent of children with fever were treated with Artemisinin-based combination therapy ACT and an additional 1 percent received an antimalarial other than ACT.
Among those who did not have access to an improved drinking water source, only 14 percent used an appropriate water treatment method. About 67 percent of users of improved drinking water sources had a water source directly on their premises. In addition, 22 percent used an improved drinking water source with a round trip of less than 30 minutes. In total, 7 percent of household members took more than 30 minutes to collect water.
Rural households were more likely than urban households to spend more than 30 minutes collecting water. Some 30 percent of households in the Mid-Western Hills took 30 minutes or more to collect water. Water was usually collected by adult women 84 percent in the household. The education level of the household head and the households wealth status were both positively associated with having a water source on the premises.
Approximately 72 percent of the population of Nepal is living in households using improved sanitation facilities. However, only 60 percent are using improved sanitation facilities that are not shared. Some 26 percent still practiced open defecation.
Urban areas were much more likely than rural areas to use improved sanitation facilities 94 percent cf. Strikingly, the poorest households were less likely than households in the second and middle wealth quintiles to practice open defecation, possibly as a result of recent targeted interventions that provide the poorest with sanitation facilities.
Overall, 56 percent of the household population used an improved drinking water source as well as an improved sanitation facility. Child faeces were disposed of in a safe manner for 48 percent of children under the age of two years. This was twice as common in urban areas as rural areas 81 percent cf.
In households where a place for handwashing was observed, 73 percent had water and soap or another cleansing agent present at that place. The proportion of households with water and soap or cleansing agent available at the handwashing place varied by region, being highest in the Eastern Terai 81 percent and the lowest in the Mid-Western and Far Western Mountains 41 percent each.
It was lower in rural areas than urban areas 69 percent cf. It was positively associated with the education level of the household head and household wealth status. A water quality testing questionnaire was included in the Nepal MICS for the first time, aiming to collect data on the quality of water actually consumed throughout Nepal through the use of a test for microbiological.
Extracts may be published if the source is duly acknowledged This publication is available on the following websites: www. Box , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; E-mail: csa ethionet. Box ; Email: ethcommunication unicef. ISO certified. Printed on chlorine free paper. Measuring child poverty Purpose of the report and SDGs Organization of the report Conceptual framework of multidimensional child poverty Applying multidimensional child poverty deprivation MCD measurement Computation of multi-dimensional child poverty indices Deprivation incidence by dimension Deprivation count and distribution by age-group MCD incidence and intensity Trend analysis: Changes in MCD between and Single deprivation analysis for children under 5 years Single dimension deprivation analysis for children years Health-related knowledge Information and Participation Deprivation overlap analysis for children under 5 years Deprivation overlap analysis for children age years Deprivation count and distribution Deprivation Intensity Changes in multidimensional child deprivation between and Decomposition of multidimensional child deprivation Decomposition of multidimensional child deprivation by region Decomposition of multidimensional child deprivation by dimension Factors associated with multidimensional child poverty Population distribution by wealth quintile Overlap between MCD and lowest two wealth quintiles The double- digit growth in the economy has also been translated to some extent into improvements in social welfare in the country.
In the past five years, per capita GDP has more than doubled and the national headcount poverty rate has declined by 6 percentage points. Ethiopia has also achieved most of the MDG goals. Despite the improvements made and high economic growth, the development process has not equally benefited the most vulnerable groups.
Some 13 million children are estimated to live in poor households in Ethiopia, 2 million of whom in extreme poverty. Children account for more than half of the population of the country. The Growth and Transformational Plans I and II have been characterized by huge investments in infrastructural facilities and emphasized the importance of industrialization and basic services.
For Ethiopia to escape out of the vicious circle of poverty and pave the way for achieving its vision to reach the level of middle income nation by , it has to deepen its understanding of the multiple dimensions of child poverty. The child is taken as the unit of analysis and child deprivations are discussed using a life cycle approach. The analysis, jointly conducted with relevant government partners, reveals that 88 per cent or This clearly shows that significantly more children are multidimensionally poor rather than monetarily poor in Ethiopia.
This implies that access to households financial resources does not necessarily guarantee access to basic goods and services particularly more so in rural areas. This study will primarily serve to monitor Ethiopias progress in achieving goals and objectives of the development agenda commitments and gain a comprehensive understanding of different aspects of childrens deprivation and poverty.
It is also expected that the results of this report will help all sectors to understand better multidimensional deprivation experienced by children of Ethiopia and help trigger policy makers to approach child poverty in an integrated and comprehensive manner through child sensitive policies and programming. Our deepest appreciation and thanks to Mr.
Asalfew Abera, Deputy Director of CSA for their continuous support for the smooth implementation of the trainings and consultations despite the Central Statistical Agencys tight schedules due to the piloting of Census. Special thanks go to the experts from CSA for their great technical contributions during the analysis and for all those who have actively participated during the presentation of the results.
Chris De Neubourg, Ms. Erblina Elezaj and Ms. Kekeli Adonu for their relentless technical support throughout the implementation of the project during training, analysis and writing of the report. Shalini Bahuguna, for her support throughout the finalization of the report and to UNICEF programme sections for their inputs to the report.
The report also lays a comprehensive child poverty and deprivation profile: it identifies the most deprived children and their characteristics; sheds light into geographical inequalities in fulfilment of childrens rights; it analyses the relationships between different dimensions of deprivation; identifies the factors associated with multidimensional child deprivation; investigates the relationship between MCD and household wealth; and tracks the countrys progress in deprivation reduction by carrying out a trend analysis between and data.
Multidimensional child deprivation in this report was defined as deprivation in 3 to 6 age-specific dimensions: physical development stunting , health, nutrition, education, health-related knowledge, information and participation, water, sanitation and housing. Deprivation was measured separately for children under 5 and children ages years with corresponding indicators to reflect differing needs based on childrens lifecycle.
Several indicators were applied to smaller age sub-groups. Eighty-eight per cent of all Ethiopian children Deprivation incidence is significantly higher in rural areas and unequally spread across regions of the country. Ninety-four percent of children residing in rural areas, twice the percentage of their peers in urban areas 42 per cent , are deprived in three or more dimensions. The differences in single dimension deprivation rates also hint to geographical disparities in service provision across areas and regions of residence.
There has been meagre progress in MCD incidence and intensity reduction over the last five years. The percentage of multidimensionally deprived children decreased from 90 per cent in to 88 per cent in , while the average deprivation intensity that these children experience dropped from 4.
This decrease was affected mainly by improvements in coverage of healthcare services for children under 5 and their mothers, improvements in access to safe drinking water for all children under 18 and an increase in penetration of information devices namely mobile phones. Deprivation in housing and sanitation were the largest contributors to multidimensional child deprivation in Ethiopia in The MCD rate among children under 5 was also highly driven by deprivation in nutrition, whereas among year-olds by deprivation in health-related knowledge.
Child poverty in Ethiopia is multidimensional and requires an integrated approach for tackling it. In Ethiopia, 95 per cent of children are deprived of fulfilment of 2 to 6 basic needs and services.
Deprivation overlaps are very high in rural areas and among children belonging to the poorest two wealth quintiles. MCD in Ethiopia is associated with childrens area of residence, education attainment of family members, fathers economic activity and occupation, access to services, and child protection. The MCD rate is the highest among children residing in rural areas, children who live in households the head of which has completed no or only primary education, children whose mother has completed no or only primary education, children whose father is either not employed continuously throughout the year or not paid, among children whose father works in agriculture or unskilled manual labour, children that live in households that have experienced mortality of a child under 5 recently, and children that live in households where gender-based violence is justified.
Multidimensional child deprivation is also associated with wealth. In Ethiopia, 42 per cent of multidimensionally deprived children belong to the poorest two wealth quintiles, whereas another 46 per cent to the richer three wealth quintiles, suggesting that MCD is highly dependent on service availability and accessibility.
The United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda explicitly targets child poverty in all its dimensions. This report therefore recommends that continuous support is provided for data collection tools to enable tracking Ethiopias progress in SDG achievement.
The report also highlights the amendments to data collection tools that would be useful in enhancing evidence-based policymaking in the area of child poverty reduction. Among others, the report recommends that more information is collected on child protection indicators, that the existing modules of child indicators are expanded to capture changes in needs and risks of children who have migrated to urban areas, that the sampling frame is expanded to allow for disaggregation of data at smaller geographical units, and that child-specific indicators are collected for all children rather than sub-samples.
The findings of this report provide useful insights for policymaking and programming in the area of child poverty reduction. As a first step, the report recommends that the findings are mainstreamed into national development plans and strategies to ensure that children receive dedicated attention.
This is especially important considering that such documents serve as the basis for policymaking and programming in the country. The findings of the report also shed an insight into geographical disparities in realization of childrens rights and needs for basic goods and services.
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Water Urbanisms as a Way of Life. Julia Watson. A short summary of this paper. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Urbanism as a Necessity Change Agents, interview doenload V. Bharne by Kelly Shannon. Gosseye by Kelly Shannon. Download Download PDF. Translate PDF. In that time we have conservationists were so anxious to protect [Chapin 17]. Its exclusivity over a great losses [Dowie 13]. Indeed it has led to the displacement of diversity poweg worldviews and their traditional knowledge and in- millions of conservation refugees, most of whom are indigenous novations, has kaida g-feeder power 390 free download Western civilization with its present predica- peoples removed from their traditional homelands.
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Their survival human ecology called Traditional Ecological Knowledge TEK is dependent upon syncing читать статью natural cycles and biophysical and are coupled with the phenomenon of human-nature sys- processes.
The suggest- plates. Bali lies near the mid-point of the arc. And while basic designs are similar the modes As the father of Biodiversity Edward O. Wilson sug- of operation are remarkably diverse, based on endemism and Wrapping kaidx Mount Batur In Octobera white cloth gests, the only case for human survival and the most kaisa exploitation-control mechanisms that are fine-tuned to local wrapped the km circumfer- challenge for the twenty-first century, will be to drag through environments.
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For coincidence of cosmology and ecology. Note: Length of the cultivation cycle depends on rice variety. For traditional Balinese rice padi tahunthe entire cucle beginning with Water Opening example, an inscription dated AD refers to a single subak The nutrient-rich volcanic soils combined with microbial and field preparation takes 30 weeks or days, the length of a Balinese uku year.
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It represents a continuous r is 3m an 40 SH living tradition of ecological management by the 1. Through physiological manipulations m m m will extend their programme beyond the existing, typical pa- that cool environs to increase visitor comfort in extreme condi- vilion for the storage of artefacts.
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Coupled with aquifer privatiza- air, through water harvesting and cleansing techniques com- ad m to Sea tion and recent droughts, water availability is an emerging crisis. Implemented in coin- ter cleansing performances are combined to amplify a spiritual that amplify the interpretive ancient archaeological and cidence with the construction of elevated boardwalks, organized response from the visitor.
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Our threatened sacred landscapes require by fish farms. Using local vegetation and integrating and materials and improve various environmental conditions poses regional retrofitting of existing socio-ecological systems intervention as a result of disassociating cultural and natural netted fish paddock aquaculture fres, intensive fish farming would be replaced by a system that within the subaks. Water quality improvements to the sacred and tourist infrastructures.
Designs for hybrid interpretation, diversity. Without intervention, the consequence of their loss increases lake biodiversity and is a self-regulating volcanic lakes that fere fertilized the terraced subak landscapes transportation, conservation and livelihood programmes downloda be could be far greater than we realize.
Unravelling the complexi- organic system. New Balinese for the World Heritage. To truly allow authorship, participation the globe and по ссылке hidden in the shadow conservation network of hybrids frde be proposed by adapting these highly controlled and replicability, a dwnload platform for kaida g-feeder power 390 free download consultation is be- sacred natural sites, will reform our engagement with the world acadja aquaculture systems that form downlaod reefs, which are ing developed in collaboration with ex-Apple technology group and re-determine the level of our creative coexistence.
For design- coastal mangrove forests, into the shallow muddy floor of the holders and inhabitants throughout the entire process. They will be sited in three crater lakes contained within ecological adaptation, designers will soon downloadd a significant role have unknown spatial and ecological consequences.
They can the borders of the World Heritage: Batur, Buyan and Tamblingan Coinciding Cosmology and Ecology in the re-evaluation of the global conservation agenda.
It will be- be informed by the breadth and depth of knowledge observed experiencing the rapid spread of commercial fish farms over ap- Throughout the world, this interconnectedness of cosmology come the greatest challenge humankind has faced and its negoti- in the societies of our ecological dwellers.
The exhibition of this proximately the past five years. The morphology of the West and ecology reverberates in frse ancient landscapes as a ppower ation will require our assistance. The language of ecology still in knowledge lies in the shadowy anthropological landscapes of African acadja pens as spiral or square in response to the flow of tinuous cycle maintaining sustainable coexistence.
There- to the traditional and indigenous communities we have afforded ]. Chang, J. Schneier-Madanes and Kaiida. Courel eds. London: Routledge. In addition to mountain de- Dang, Q. London, New York: Springer, — Washington, D. Part of this paper appeared in B. Chellaney, B. Sea Level Rise on Developing Countries: Paris: GRET. Biography of Yoichi Hattatrans. Rungjou 1. Taipei: Avanguard Publishing. Tainan: Tainan County tre les inondations.
Digues du H-feeder. Waterstaet was the very powerful national Municipality.